10 snippets de SQL que harán las delicias de todo programador

El SQL es un gran conocido entre todos los desarrolladores, pero no todos saben extraer su verdadero jugo. En este artículo te mostramos 10 snippets de SQL que puedes poner en práctica en tus propios proyectos sin riesgo alguno. Los hay de todo tipo, desde uno para listar aquellas queries más lentas y pesadas, hasta otro que muestra las dependencias entre tablas.

Listado de queries más pesadas

SELECT DISTINCT TOP 10
t.TEXT AS QueryName,
s.execution_count AS ExecutionCount,
s.max_elapsed_time AS MaxElapsedTime,
ISNULL(s.total_elapsed_time / 1000 / NULLIF(s.execution_count, 0), 0) AS AvgElapsedTime,
s.creation_time AS LogCreatedOn,
ISNULL(s.execution_count / 1000 / NULLIF(DATEDIFF(s, s.creation_time, GETDATE()), 0), 0) AS FrequencyPerSec
FROM sys.dm_exec_query_stats s
CROSS APPLY sys.dm_exec_sql_text( s.sql_handle ) t
ORDER BY s.max_elapsed_time DESC, ExecutionCount DESC

GO

Crear un log DDL de la base de datos

Creamos primero el log:

CREATE DATABASE [DDL_ChangeLog]

GO

use ddl_changelog;

CREATE TABLE DDLChangeLog (

DDLChangeLogID [int] IDENTITY(1,1) NOT NULL,

eventtype nvarchar(100),

objectname nvarchar(100),

objecttype nvarchar(100),

databasename nvarchar(100),

schemaname nvarchar(100),

SystemUser nvarchar(255),

AppName nvarchar(255),

HostName nvarchar(255),

tsql nvarchar(MAX),

createddate datetime,

CONSTRAINT [PK_DDL_Changelog] PRIMARY KEY CLUSTERED

(DDLChangeLogID ASC))

Y después creamos el trigger para registrar cualquier cambio en el DDL

CREATE TRIGGER [trgLogDDLEvent] ON DATABASE

FOR DDL_DATABASE_LEVEL_EVENTS

AS

DECLARE @data XML

SET @data = EVENTDATA()

IF @data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/EventType)[1]', 'nvarchar(100)') <> 'CREATE_STATISTICS'

INSERT INTO ddl_changelog..DDLChangeLog

(EventType, ObjectName, ObjectType, DatabaseName, SchemaName, SystemUser, AppName, HostName, tsql , createddate)

VALUES (

@data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/EventType)[1]', 'nvarchar(100)'),

@data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/ObjectName)[1]', 'nvarchar(100)'),

@data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/ObjectType)[1]', 'nvarchar(100)'),

@data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/DatabaseName)[1]', 'nvarchar(100)'),

@data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/SchemaName)[1]', 'nvarchar(100)'),

system_user , app_name (),host_name(),

@data.value('(/EVENT_INSTANCE/TSQLCommand)[1]', 'nvarchar(max)') ,

getdate()) ;

GO

ENABLE TRIGGER [trgLogDDLEvent] ON DATABASE

GO

Saber qué cambios se han hecho en los procedimientos almacenados en los últimos X días

SELECT name
FROM sys.objects
WHERE type = 'P'
AND DATEDIFF(D,modify_date, GETDATE()) < 7
----Change 7 to any other day value
SELECT name
FROM sys.objects
WHERE type = 'P'
AND DATEDIFF(D,create_date, GETDATE()) < 7

Fragmentar todos los índices de las tablas de una base de datos

SET NOCOUNT ON
DECLARE @tablename VARCHAR (128)
DECLARE @execstr VARCHAR (255)
DECLARE @objectid INT
DECLARE @indexid INT
DECLARE @frag DECIMAL
DECLARE @maxfrag DECIMAL
DECLARE @dbname VARCHAR (40)
if not exists (select * from dbo.sysobjects where id = object_id(N'[dbo].[FragStats]') and OBJECTPROPERTY(id, N'IsUserTable') = 1)
CREATE TABLE [dbo].[FragStats] (
[ObjectName] [char] (255) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL ,
[ObjectId] [int] NULL ,
[IndexName] [char] (255) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL ,
[IndexId] [int] NULL ,
[Lvl] [int] NULL ,
[CountPages] [int] NULL ,
[CountRows] [int] NULL ,
[MinRecSize] [int] NULL ,
[MaxRecSize] [int] NULL ,
[AvgRecSize] [int] NULL ,
[ForRecCount] [int] NULL ,
[Extents] [int] NULL ,
[ExtentSwitches] [int] NULL ,
[AvgFreeBytes] [int] NULL ,
[AvgPageDensity] [int] NULL ,
[ScanDensity] [decimal](18, 0) NULL ,
[BestCount] [int] NULL ,
[ActualCount] [int] NULL ,
[LogicalFrag] [decimal](18, 0) NULL ,
[ExtentFrag] [decimal](18, 0) NULL ,
[TStamp] [datetime] NULL ,
[DBName] [varchar] (40) COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS NULL
)
-- Declare cursor
DECLARE tables CURSOR FOR
SELECT TABLE_NAME
FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES
WHERE TABLE_TYPE = 'BASE TABLE'
-- Create the table
CREATE TABLE #fraglist (
ObjectName CHAR (255),
ObjectId INT,
IndexName CHAR (255),
IndexId INT,
Lvl INT,
CountPages INT,
CountRows INT,
MinRecSize INT,
MaxRecSize INT,
AvgRecSize INT,
ForRecCount INT,
Extents INT,
ExtentSwitches INT,
AvgFreeBytes INT,
AvgPageDensity INT,
ScanDensity DECIMAL,
BestCount INT,
ActualCount INT,
LogicalFrag DECIMAL,
ExtentFrag DECIMAL)
-- Open the cursor
OPEN tables
-- Loop through all the tables in the database
FETCH NEXT
FROM tables
INTO @tablename
WHILE cv_FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
-- Do the showcontig of all indexes of the table
INSERT INTO #fraglist
EXEC ('DBCC SHOWCONTIG (''' + @tablename + ''')
WITH FAST, TABLERESULTS, ALL_INDEXES, NO_INFOMSGS')
FETCH NEXT
FROM tables
INTO @tablename
END
-- Close and deallocate the cursor
CLOSE tables
DEALLOCATE tables
insert into [FragStats] select *,getdate(),@dbname from #Fraglist
drop table #fraglist
go

Listado de sentencias bloqueadas y en espera

select t1.resource_type
,db_name(resource_database_id) as [database]
,t1.resource_associated_entity_id as [blk object]
,t1.request_mode
,t1.request_session_id -- spid of waiter
,(select text from sys.dm_exec_requests as r --- get sql for waiter
cross apply sys.dm_exec_sql_text(r.sql_handle) where r.session_id = t1.request_session_id) as waiter_text
,t2.blocking_session_id -- spid of blocker
,(select text from sys.sysprocesses as p --- get sql for blocker
cross apply sys.dm_exec_sql_text(p.sql_handle) where p.spid = t2.blocking_session_id) as blocker_text
from
sys.dm_tran_locks as t1,
sys.dm_os_waiting_tasks as t2
where
t1.lock_owner_address = t2.resource_address
go

Listado de índices poco utilizados en una tabla

declare @dbid int
select @dbid = db_id()
select objectname=object_name(s.object_id), s.object_id
, indexname=i.name, i.index_id
, user_seeks, user_scans, user_lookups, user_updates
from sys.dm_db_index_usage_stats s,
sys.indexes i
where database_id = @dbid
and objectproperty(s.object_id,'IsUserTable') = 1
and i.object_id = s.object_id
and i.index_id = s.index_id
order by (user_seeks + user_scans + user_lookups + user_updates) asc

Recompilar todos los procedimientos almacenados de una base de datos

CREATE PROCEDURE dbo.spEXECsp_RECOMPILE AS

SET NOCOUNT ON 

-- 1a - Declaration statements for all variables
DECLARE @TableName varchar(128)
DECLARE @OwnerName varchar(128)
DECLARE @CMD1 varchar(8000)
DECLARE @TableListLoop int
DECLARE @TableListTable table
(UIDTableList int IDENTITY (1,1),
OwnerName varchar(128),
TableName varchar(128))

-- 2a - Outer loop for populating the database names
INSERT INTO @TableListTable(OwnerName, TableName)
SELECT TOP 10 u.[Name], o.[Name]
FROM dbo.sysobjects o
INNER JOIN dbo.sysusers u
ON o.uid = u.uid
WHERE o.Type = 'U'
ORDER BY o.[Name]

-- 2b - Determine the highest UIDDatabaseList to loop through the records
SELECT @TableListLoop = MAX(UIDTableList) FROM @TableListTable

-- 2c - While condition for looping through the database records
WHILE @TableListLoop > 0
BEGIN

-- 2d - Set the @DatabaseName parameter
SELECT @TableName = TableName,
@OwnerName = OwnerName
FROM @TableListTable
WHERE UIDTableList = @TableListLoop

-- 3f - String together the final backup command
SELECT @CMD1 = 'EXEC sp_recompile ' + '[' + @OwnerName + '.' + @TableName + ']' + char(13)

-- 3g - Execute the final string to complete the backups
-- SELECT @CMD1
EXEC (@CMD1)

-- 2h - Descend through the database list
SELECT @TableListLoop = @TableListLoop - 1

END

SET NOCOUNT OFF

GO

Mostrar la dependencia entre tablas

set nocount on
declare @ProcName nvarchar(100)
declare @ProcSortOrder int
declare @MyCursor CURSOR
declare @ProcUser varchar(100)
select @ProcUser = 'my user'
declare @StoredProcs TABLE
(
SortOrder int,
ProcedureName varchar(100),
ProcedureCode varchar(7500)
)
Insert Into @StoredProcs
select 0,upper(SysObjects.Name),SysComments.Text
from SysObjects,SysComments
where SysObjects.type='P'
and (SysObjects.Category = 0)
and (SysObjects.ID = SysComments.ID)
order by SysObjects.Name ASC
set nocount off
SET @MyCursor = CURSOR FAST_FORWARD
FOR
select ProcedureName,
SortOrder = (select count(*)
from @StoredProcs B
WHERE (A.ProcedureName <> B.ProcedureName)
and (REPLACE(UPPER(B.ProcedureCode),B.ProcedureName,'')
LIKE '%' + upper(A.ProcedureName) + '%')
)
from @StoredProcs A
order by SortOrder Desc
OPEN @MyCursor
FETCH NEXT FROM @MyCursor
INTO @ProcName,@ProcSortOrder
WHILE cv_FETCH_STATUS = 0
BEGIN
PRINT 'if exists (select * from dbo.sysobjects '
PRINT ' where id = object_id(N' + char(39) + '[dbo].[' + @ProcName + ']' + char(39) + ')'
PRINT ' and OBJECTPROPERTY(id, N' + char(39) + 'IsProcedure' + char(39) + ') = 1) '
PRINT ' drop procedure ' + @ProcName
PRINT ' GO '
PRINT ' SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER OFF '
PRINT ' GO '
PRINT ' SET ANSI_NULLS OFF '
PRINT ' GO'
exec sp_helptext @ProcName
PRINT ' GO '
PRINT ' SET QUOTED_IDENTIFIER OFF '
PRINT ' GO '
PRINT ' SET ANSI_NULLS ON '
PRINT ' GO '
PRINT ' GRANT EXECUTE ON [dbo].[' + @ProcName + '] TO [' + @ProcUser + ']'
PRINT ' GO '
/* PRINT @ProcName + ' ' + cast(@ProcSortOrder as varchar(20)) */
FETCH NEXT FROM @MyCursor
INTO @ProcName,@ProcSortOrder
END
CLOSE @MyCursor
DEALLOCATE @MyCursor

Auditar quién tiene permisos de ejecución por procedimientos almacenados o nombre de usuario

drop table #t2
go
select case
when issqluser=1 then 'SQL User'
when isntuser=1 then 'NT User'
when isntgroup=1 then 'NT Group'
when isntname=1 then 'NT Group or User'
when issqlrole=1 then 'SQL Group/Role'
end 'User Type',
user_name(pro.uid) 'User/Group Name',
--pro.id,
--obj.id,
obj.name,
--pro.uid,
--pro.action,
case
when pro.action = 224 then 'X'
else ' '
end as 'EXECUTE'
into #t2
from sysprotects pro
join sysobjects obj
on pro.id=obj.id
join sysusers su
on pro.uid=su.uid
where obj.type='P'
and pro.action in (224)
go
--
--results by group
--
select cast([User/Group Name] as char(30)) 'User/Group Name',
[User Type],
cast([name] as char(30)) 'Proceedure Name',
[Execute]
from #t2
order by
[User/Group Name],
[User Type],
[name]
go
--
--results by proc name
--
select cast([name] as char(30)) 'Procedure Name',
[User Type],
cast([User/Group Name] as char(30)) 'User/Group Name',
[Execute]
from #t2
order by
[name],
[User Type],
[User/Group Name]
go

Snippet para reconstruir una tabla

CREATE PROCEDURE sp_ScriptTable

(

@TableName SYSNAME,

@IncludeConstraints BIT = 1,

@IncludeIndexes BIT = 1,

@NewTableName SYSNAME = NULL,

@UseSystemDataTypes BIT = 0

)

AS

BEGIN

DECLARE @MainDefinition TABLE

(

FieldValue VARCHAR(200)

)

DECLARE @DBName SYSNAME

DECLARE @ClusteredPK BIT

DECLARE @TableSchema NVARCHAR(255)

SET @DBName = DB_NAME(DB_ID())


SELECT @TableName = name FROM sysobjects WHERE id = OBJECT_ID(@TableName) 

DECLARE @ShowFields TABLE

(

FieldID INT IDENTITY(1,1),

DatabaseName VARCHAR(100),

TableOwner VARCHAR(100),

TableName VARCHAR(100),

FieldName VARCHAR(100),

ColumnPosition INT,

ColumnDefaultValue VARCHAR(100),

ColumnDefaultName VARCHAR(100),

IsNullable BIT,

DataType VARCHAR(100),

MaxLength INT,

NumericPrecision INT,

NumericScale INT,

DomainName VARCHAR(100),

FieldListingName VARCHAR(110),

FieldDefinition CHAR(1),

IdentityColumn BIT,

IdentitySeed INT,

IdentityIncrement INT,

IsCharColumn BIT

) 

DECLARE @HoldingArea TABLE

(

FldID SMALLINT IDENTITY(1,1),

Flds VARCHAR(4000),

FldValue CHAR(1) DEFAULT(0)

)

DECLARE @PKObjectID TABLE

(

ObjectID INT

)

DECLARE @Uniques TABLE

(

ObjectID INT

) 

DECLARE @HoldingAreaValues TABLE

(

FldID SMALLINT IDENTITY(1,1),

Flds VARCHAR(4000),

FldValue CHAR(1) DEFAULT(0)

)

DECLARE @Definition TABLE

(

DefinitionID SMALLINT IDENTITY(1,1),

FieldValue VARCHAR(200)

)

INSERT INTO @ShowFields

(

DatabaseName,

TableOwner,

TableName,

FieldName,

ColumnPosition,

ColumnDefaultValue,

ColumnDefaultName,

IsNullable,

DataType,

MaxLength,

NumericPrecision,

NumericScale,

DomainName,

FieldListingName,

FieldDefinition,

IdentityColumn,

IdentitySeed,

IdentityIncrement,

IsCharColumn

) 

SELECT

DB_NAME(),

TABLE_SCHEMA,

TABLE_NAME,

COLUMN_NAME,

CAST(ORDINAL_POSITION AS INT),

COLUMN_DEFAULT,

dobj.name AS ColumnDefaultName,

CASE WHEN c.IS_NULLABLE = 'YES' THEN 1 ELSE 0 END,

DATA_TYPE,

CAST(CHARACTER_MAXIMUM_LENGTH AS INT),

CAST(NUMERIC_PRECISION AS INT),

CAST(NUMERIC_SCALE AS INT),

DOMAIN_NAME,

COLUMN_NAME + ',',

'' AS FieldDefinition,

CASE WHEN ic.object_id IS NULL THEN 0 ELSE 1 END AS IdentityColumn,

CAST(ISNULL(ic.seed_value,0) AS INT) AS IdentitySeed,

CAST(ISNULL(ic.increment_value,0) AS INT) AS IdentityIncrement,

CASE WHEN st.collation_name IS NOT NULL THEN 1 ELSE 0 END AS IsCharColumn

FROM

INFORMATION_SCHEMA.COLUMNS c

JOIN sys.columns sc ON c.TABLE_NAME = OBJECT_NAME(sc.object_id) AND c.COLUMN_NAME = sc.Name

LEFT JOIN sys.identity_columns ic ON c.TABLE_NAME = OBJECT_NAME(ic.object_id) AND c.COLUMN_NAME = ic.Name

JOIN sys.types st ON COALESCE(c.DOMAIN_NAME,c.DATA_TYPE) = st.name


LEFT OUTER JOIN sys.objects dobj ON dobj.object_id = sc.default_object_id AND dobj.type = 'D'



WHERE c.TABLE_NAME = @TableName

ORDER BY

c.TABLE_NAME, c.ORDINAL_POSITION


SELECT TOP 1 @TableSchema = TableOwner

FROM @ShowFields


INSERT INTO @HoldingArea (Flds) VALUES('(')


INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

VALUES('CREATE TABLE ' + CASE WHEN @NewTableName IS NOT NULL THEN @NewTableName ELSE @DBName + '.' + @TableSchema + '.' + @TableName END)


INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

VALUES('(')


INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

SELECT

CHAR(10) + FieldName + ' ' +

CASE

WHEN DomainName IS NOT NULL AND @UseSystemDataTypes = 0 THEN DomainName + CASE WHEN IsNullable = 1 THEN ' NULL ' ELSE ' NOT NULL ' END

ELSE UPPER(DataType) +

CASE WHEN IsCharColumn = 1 THEN '(' + CAST(MaxLength AS VARCHAR(10)) + ')' ELSE '' END +

CASE WHEN IdentityColumn = 1 THEN ' IDENTITY(' + CAST(IdentitySeed AS VARCHAR(5))+ ',' + CAST(IdentityIncrement AS VARCHAR(5)) + ')' ELSE '' END +

CASE WHEN IsNullable = 1 THEN ' NULL ' ELSE ' NOT NULL ' END +

CASE WHEN ColumnDefaultName IS NOT NULL AND @IncludeConstraints = 1 THEN 'CONSTRAINT [' + ColumnDefaultName + '] DEFAULT' + UPPER(ColumnDefaultValue) ELSE '' END

END +


CASE WHEN FieldID = (SELECT MAX(FieldID) FROM @ShowFields) THEN '' ELSE ',' END

FROM @ShowFields


IF @IncludeConstraints = 1

BEGIN

INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)



SELECT

',CONSTRAINT [' + name + '] FOREIGN KEY (' + ParentColumns + ') REFERENCES [' + ReferencedObject + '](' + ReferencedColumns + ')'

FROM

(

SELECT

ReferencedObject = OBJECT_NAME(fk.referenced_object_id), ParentObject = OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id),fk.name,

REVERSE(SUBSTRING(REVERSE((

SELECT cp.name + ','

FROM

sys.foreign_key_columns fkc

JOIN sys.columns cp ON fkc.parent_object_id = cp.object_id AND fkc.parent_column_id = cp.column_id

WHERE fkc.constraint_object_id = fk.object_id

FOR XML PATH('')

)), 2, 8000)) ParentColumns,

REVERSE(SUBSTRING(REVERSE((

SELECT cr.name + ','

FROM

sys.foreign_key_columns fkc

JOIN sys.columns cr ON fkc.referenced_object_id = cr.object_id AND fkc.referenced_column_id = cr.column_id

WHERE fkc.constraint_object_id = fk.object_id

FOR XML PATH('')

)), 2, 8000)) ReferencedColumns

FROM sys.foreign_keys fk

) a

WHERE ParentObject = @TableName


INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

SELECT ',CONSTRAINT [' + name + '] CHECK ' + definition FROM sys.check_constraints

WHERE OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) = @TableName


INSERT INTO @PKObjectID(ObjectID)

SELECT DISTINCT

PKObject = cco.object_id

FROM

sys.key_constraints cco

JOIN sys.index_columns cc ON cco.parent_object_id = cc.object_id AND cco.unique_index_id = cc.index_id

JOIN sys.indexes i ON cc.object_id = i.object_id AND cc.index_id = i.index_id

WHERE

OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) = @TableName AND

i.type = 1 AND

is_primary_key = 1


INSERT INTO @Uniques(ObjectID)

SELECT DISTINCT

PKObject = cco.object_id

FROM

sys.key_constraints cco

JOIN sys.index_columns cc ON cco.parent_object_id = cc.object_id AND cco.unique_index_id = cc.index_id

JOIN sys.indexes i ON cc.object_id = i.object_id AND cc.index_id = i.index_id

WHERE

OBJECT_NAME(parent_object_id) = @TableName AND

i.type = 2 AND

is_primary_key = 0 AND

is_unique_constraint = 1


SET @ClusteredPK = CASE WHEN cv_ROWCOUNT > 0 THEN 1 ELSE 0 END


INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

SELECT ',CONSTRAINT ' + name + CASE type WHEN 'PK' THEN ' PRIMARY KEY ' + CASE WHEN pk.ObjectID IS NULL THEN ' NONCLUSTERED ' ELSE ' CLUSTERED ' END

WHEN 'UQ' THEN ' UNIQUE ' END + CASE WHEN u.ObjectID IS NOT NULL THEN ' NONCLUSTERED ' ELSE '' END + '(' +

REVERSE(SUBSTRING(REVERSE((

SELECT

c.name + + CASE WHEN cc.is_descending_key = 1 THEN ' DESC' ELSE ' ASC' END + ','

FROM

sys.key_constraints ccok

LEFT JOIN sys.index_columns cc ON ccok.parent_object_id = cc.object_id AND cco.unique_index_id = cc.index_id



LEFT JOIN sys.columns c ON cc.object_id = c.object_id AND cc.column_id = c.column_id

LEFT JOIN sys.indexes i ON cc.object_id = i.object_id AND cc.index_id = i.index_id

WHERE

i.object_id = ccok.parent_object_id AND

ccok.object_id = cco.object_id

FOR XML PATH('')

)), 2, 8000)) + ')'

FROM

sys.key_constraints cco

LEFT JOIN @PKObjectID pk ON cco.object_id = pk.ObjectID

LEFT JOIN @Uniques u ON cco.object_id = u.objectID

WHERE

OBJECT_NAME(cco.parent_object_id) = @TableName

END


INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

VALUES(')')


IF @IncludeIndexes = 1

BEGIN

INSERT INTO @Definition(FieldValue)

SELECT

'CREATE ' + type_desc + ' INDEX [' + [name] COLLATE SQL_Latin1_General_CP1_CI_AS + '] ON [' + OBJECT_NAME(object_id) + '] (' +

REVERSE(SUBSTRING(REVERSE((

SELECT name + CASE WHEN sc.is_descending_key = 1 THEN ' DESC' ELSE ' ASC' END + ','

FROM

sys.index_columns sc

JOIN sys.columns c ON sc.object_id = c.object_id AND sc.column_id = c.column_id

WHERE

OBJECT_NAME(sc.object_id) = @TableName AND

sc.object_id = i.object_id AND

sc.index_id = i.index_id

ORDER BY index_column_id ASC

FOR XML PATH('')

)), 2, 8000)) + ')'

FROM sys.indexes i

WHERE

OBJECT_NAME(object_id) = @TableName



AND CASE WHEN @ClusteredPK = 1 AND is_primary_key = 1 AND type = 1 THEN 0 ELSE 1 END = 1

AND is_unique_constraint = 0

AND is_primary_key = 0

END

INSERT INTO @MainDefinition(FieldValue)

SELECT FieldValue FROM @Definition

ORDER BY DefinitionID ASC


SELECT * FROM @MainDefinition

END


GO

Fuente: iomer.com

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